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Heat naturally moves from warmer places to cooler places. Heat pumps use electricity to move heat in the opposite direction, from cooler places to warmer places, making the cool space cooler and the warm space warmer. Your refrigerator is a heat pump, moving heat from inside the refrigerated cabinet (cooler place) into your kitchen (warmer place). An air conditioner is a heat pump, moving heat from inside your home (cooler place) to the outside summer air (warmer place).
Heat pumps are also used to heat homes, taking advantage of the fact that in the spring, fall, and yes, even in the winter, there is some heat in the outdoor air. An air-source heat pump collects heat from the outdoor air, concentrates it via an outdoor compressor, and distributes it inside through an indoor room unit or a home’s ductwork. During the summer, a heat pump can operate in reverse, as an air conditioner, by moving heat from indoors to the outside air. Heat pumps require electricity to run, but can deliver more energy than they use.
Air-source heat pumps have been used for many years in nearly all parts of the United States, but until recently they have not been used in areas that experienced extended periods of subfreezing temperatures. However, in recent years, air-source heat pump technology has advanced so that it now offers a legitimate space heating alternative in colder regions. Over 300,000 heat pumps were sold in New England, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and Washington DC in 2015 alone.
The majority of people who install an air-source heat pump in their home do so to obtain an improved level of comfort. For example, they may wish to add air conditioning to a home, or to better heat or cool parts of their home that weren’t adequately heated or cooled before. And, popular ductless heat pumps installed throughout a home are zone-friendly – you heat or cool only the rooms you need to.
People who currently have conventional electric resistance or propane-fueled heating systems can save 50% - 70% on energy costs by heating with an air-source heat pump instead. At current fuel prices, oil heating households can save up to 30%. At current prices, natural gas-heating households won’t cut costs by using air source heat pumps.
Concordians also install heat pumps because the systems reduce carbon emissions due to heating by 30 – 70%. This is a result of the combined high efficiency of the heat pump technology and the relatively lower carbon content of electricity, compared to other heating fuels. Most households keep their existing heating system when they install heat pumps. On extremely cold days, the existing heating system supplements the heat provided by the heat pumps. The actual percentage of carbon reduction depends on the percentage of the home’s heating needs met by heat pumps, and the heating fuel being replaced.
Cold climate air-source heat pumps come in two varieties: ductless and ducted.
Ductless heat pumps, also known as mini-splits, have outdoor compressors and indoor wall, floor, or ceiling mounted units to distribute the warm or cool air. Because ductless heat pumps do not require the presence of air ducts, they can be installed in homes currently heated with a boiler or an electric baseboard heating system.
Outdoor and indoor components of a ductless ASHP system in Concord, MA
A central ducted heat pump can be installed in homes with air ducts. It looks and performs like a central air conditioning system, except that it can heat in winter as well as cool in summer.
Outdoor and indoor components of a ducted heat pump system in Carlisle, MA
Whether you choose ductless or ducted heat pumps depends on the characteristics of your home.
CMLP can put you in touch with Concord residents who have already installed heat pumps in their homes, and who would be happy to share information about their experience buying and using a heat pump. Contact Energy Specialist Pamela Cady at firstname.lastname@example.org or 978-318-3149 for referrals.
We suggest soliciting proposals from at least three heat pump installers. Before soliciting proposals, consider talking with Concord residents who have already installed heat pumps in their homes. CMLP’s Energy Specialist, Pamela Cady (email@example.com or 978-318-3149), can put you in touch with Concord residents who would be happy to share information about their experience buying and using a heat pump.
CMLP strongly suggests that you seek proposals from HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) contractors who can provide a letter or certificate from the manufacturer verifying that the installer has successfully completed at least 4 hours of manufacturer training within the last 5 years for the products they install. CMLP highly recommends that you request the installer submit this documentation to you with their proposal. The documentation will be required if you wish to apply for a CMLP rebate for your heat pump.
The following HVAC contractors have installed air conditioning and/or heat pump systems for Concord residents who have received energy efficiency rebates from CMLP in the past. CMLP does not have any knowledge of customer experiences with these vendors, and we do not endorse, nor have we pre-qualified these companies in any way. When requesting a proposal from a contractor, CMLP recommends asking for the documentation of the manufacturer training described in the paragraph above.
Consider asking potential installers the following questions:
Rebates are available to homeowners and renters for air-source heat pump installations in new or existing homes that meet the following eligibility requirements:
Rebate Type Eligibility
If the project meets the above eligibility requirements, system owners should next determine which rebate type they are eligible for based on the following table:
Income-Based Thresholds by Household Size
Annual Gross Income
Central or Multi-Head
$625 per system
(up to 3 systems***)
$625 per 12,000 BTU/hr****
(up to a maximum rebate of $2,500)
$800 per system
$800 per 12,000 BTU/hr****
(up to a maximum rebate of $3,200)
$1,500 per system
$1,500 per 12,000 BTU/hr****
(up to a maximum rebate of $6,000)
**To receive an income-based rebate, the customer must complete one of the accepted income verification methods. Please see the "How Do I Qualify for an Income-Based Rebate?" question below for more information about income-based rebates and income verification.
*** Residences may install more than three single-head ductless systems, though the rebate will only support the first three installed. Rebates for central or multi-head systems are limited to 48,000 BTU/hr of heating capacity (maximum heating capacity at 5°F). Residences may install systems with greater capacity, though the rebate will only support the first 48,000 BTU/hr of heating capacity installed.
****For the purposes of determining rebate levels for central or multi-head systems, CMLP uses the system’s maximum heating capacity (BTU/hr) at 5°F.
Step 1: Find an Installer
First select an ASHP installer, who can help you with your rebate application. CMLP recommends that residents:
Prior to deciding to move forward with a system, residents who may meet income criteria should determine if they are eligible for the Income-Based Rebate, as described under the "Who’s Eligible for a Rebate?" question above. For example, a household of four with annual income of $130,775 or less may qualify. If eligible, complete one of the three income verification methods described in "How do I qualify for a Income-Based Rebate" question below.
Step 2: Select Eligible Equipment
Step 3: Apply for a Rebate
Once you select an installer and are ready to move forward with the project:
Within 90 days of installation invoice date, residents, with assistance from their installer, should complete and email the following documents to Energy New England, CMLP’s rebate processor, at firstname.lastname@example.org or postal mail to Concord Rebates c/o Energy New England, 100 Foxborough Blvd #110, Foxboro, MA 02035.
The Town of Concord assumes no liability for any equipment, installation or damages, and may inspect equipment to verify the above information at any time up to 1 year after receiving the rebate application.
In the interest of increasing access to air-source heat pumps for all residents of Concord, CMLP offers additional incentives for households with income below eighty percent (80%) and one-hundred-twenty percent (120%) of the state median income. Eligibility thresholds are determined based on household size. Eligibility for the income-based rebate is based on the income of the System Owner’s household.
Eligibility is based on total household income (Tax Return Form 1040 line 22), as determined by the system owner and household members’ federal income tax filings for the most recent year available. For rental properties, if the tenant is contracting directly with the installer for the installation of the project, the tenant would be the system owner. Each system owner is only eligible to receive the income-based rebate at one residence.
Income-Based Rebate Adder Thresholds by Household Size
80% of State Median Income
120% of State Median Income
To receive the Income-Based Rebate, the system owner must complete one of the following three income verification methods:
You will be notified by email or postal mail once your eligibility for an income-based rebate has been determined. Include this proof of income verification with your application documents.
We hope to add a rebate for the installation of geothermal heat pumps soon. Please check back frequently.
Contact Pamela Cady, CMLP’s Energy Specialist, at email@example.com or 978-318-3149.
No. The Central Air Conditioning rebate program for air-conditioning-only systems will be discontinued on September 9, 2017 in favor of the new Air-Source Heat Pump rebate program. Since the additional cost of a heat pump over a cooling-only system is modest, CMLP encourages its customers to purchase versatile heat pumps rather than cooling-only systems. In addition to increased comfort (and cost savings for some customers), the use of heat pumps to heat as well as cool will reduce greenhouse gas emissions, helping Concord meet its goal of 25% fewer emissions by 2020 and 80% fewer emissions by 2050.
CMLP discontinued the Residential Central Air Conditioning / Heat Pump Rebate Program material on September 9, 2017. However, we will still accept applications under that program for any compliant cooling-only systems or heat pumps installed through the end of 2017, in order to accommodate sales activity or installations in progress when we discontinued the program on September 9, 2017.
The rebate application for any cooling-only system or heat pump installed before the end of 2017 under the old Residential Central Air Conditioning / Heat Pump Rebate Program must be received by CMLP within one year of the equipment purchase date in order to be eligible for a rebate. Email Pamela Cady at firstname.lastname@example.org for an application form.